Recent Posts

Recognition of Occupational Injury & Illness
Recognition of Occupational Injury & IllnessMay 4, 2018zaheer

An employer takes the employee as is and is responsible for medical conditions caused or made worse by employment. An injury or disease must occur while carrying out the interest of the employer. The actual injury or disease does not have to occur on the employer’s premises to be covered by workers’ compensation. The word […]

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Teaching Occupational Medicine
Teaching Occupational MedicineMay 4, 2018zaheer

Despite its relevance to medical practice, occupational medicine has been poorly represented in undergraduate training. This article describes a model for the teaching of occupational medicine to student doctors. Methods The model comprises two didactic lectures, a student‐selected component (SSC) of five interactive two‐hour sessions and one occupational medicine objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) station […]

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Brain, Spinal Cord, and Meninges
Brain, Spinal Cord, and MeningesMay 4, 2018zaheer

This chapter focuses on the diagnosis of neurosurgical biopsy and resection specimens from the central nervous system (CNS) and within the cranial-spinal vault. First, it presents ways to identify and manage various surgical specimens and tools that help with this process. Then, it provides a reference guide first to reactive changes and then to major […]

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Seborrheic dermatitis
Seborrheic dermatitisMay 4, 2018zaheer

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common dermatosis which affects up to 1–3% of the population. There is a male predominance. It presents in infants, with a second peak affecting adults. There is often a family history of the disease. It particularly affects those areas where sebaceous glands are most numerous, i.e., the scalp, forehead, eyebrows, eyelids, […]

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Bazex syndrome (acrokeratosis paraneoplastica)
Bazex syndrome (acrokeratosis paraneoplastica)May 4, 2018zaheer

Bazex syndrome denotes an acral psoriasiform dermatosis in association with internal malignancy. Elderly patients, usually males, present with a symmetric erythematous or violaceous, scaly eruption affecting the ears, nose, fingers, and toes. The knees and elbows may sometimes be involved. Vesicles and bullae are less common manifestations. In patients with black or darkbrown skin, the […]

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Immunization coverage
Immunization coverageMay 4, 2018zaheer

Stark inequalities in access to vaccination exist within and between countries, with children living in disadvantaged circumstances having considerably lower uptake. The reasons for these inequalities are complex but ultimately they reduce population immunization coverage, prevent achievement of herd immunity, and increase the chance of continuing or re-emerging epidemics of infectious disease. Another major threat […]

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Prevention in neonatal period
Prevention in neonatal periodMay 4, 2018zaheer

Good intrapartum obstetric care and subsequent effective monitoring, investigation and treatment of the many disorders from which the newborn infant may suffer are important preventive measures. Such disorders include asphyxia, birth injury, low birth weight and hyperbilirubinemia. Neonatal screening procedures are discussed in the section on Child health surveillance and screening. The promotion of breast-feeding […]

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Chorionic Villus Sampling
Chorionic Villus SamplingMay 4, 2018zaheer

What is chorionic villus sampling? Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal test that diagnoses chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, as well as a host of other genetic disorders. The doctor takes cells from tiny fingerlike projections on your placenta called the chorionic villi and sends them to a lab for genetic analysis. CVS […]

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Fetal Surgery
Fetal SurgeryMay 4, 2018zaheer

Of the approximately 4 million babies born in the United States each year, about 120,000 (3 percent) have a complex birth defect. Maternal-fetal specialists have long known that some birth defects could be successfully treated after birth. But as technology, fetal imaging and prenatal testing have improved in the past few decades, so too has […]

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Eyelod Aesthetics
Eyelod AestheticsMay 4, 2018zaheer

Eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty) is a very popular and effective technique used to improve the appearance and function of your eyelids. Just like other areas of your body, your eyelid skin can lose elasticity as you grow older. This can cause sagging of the upper eyelids and bags under the eyes. Not only can this make […]

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Upper Eyelid
Upper EyelidMay 4, 2018zaheer

The procedure of upper eyelid blepharoplasty has changed dramatically in both understanding and performance over the last 20 years. Upper eyelid overhang and the resultant tired facies have led patients to seek correction for the last century. Understanding the dynamic anatomy of the upper eyelid and the palpebral crease allows tailoring the fold and eradicating […]

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Head And Neck Oncology
Head And Neck OncologyMay 4, 2018zaheer

What are cancers of the head and neck? Cancers that are known collectively as head and neck cancers usually begin in the squamous cells that line the moist, mucosal surfaces inside the head and neck (for example, inside the mouth, the nose, and the throat). These squamous cell cancers are often referred to as squamous […]

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Perioperative Regional Anesthesia
Perioperative Regional AnesthesiaMay 4, 2018zaheer

Healthcare providers have become increasingly focused on pro- viding effective management of acute perioperative pain in all patients, but especially older adults, as the size of this patient population has steadily increased in recent years. Advances in anesthetic and surgical techniques, an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of pain, the development of new opioid and […]

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Weak And Strong Opioids
Weak And Strong OpioidsMay 4, 2018zaheer

WEAK OPIOIDS A collection of medications that include codeine, hydrocodone, and tramadol is recommended as the second tier of the WHO analgesic ladder. These are the weak opioids, and they are used for mild to moderate pain, often in combination with step 1 analgesics. Variation in the metabolism of weak opioids is considerable among individuals, […]

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Migraine
MigraineMay 4, 2018zaheer

A migraine is usually a moderate or severe headache felt as a throbbing pain on one side of the head. Many people also have symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and increased sensitivity to light or sound. Migraine is a common health condition, affecting around one in every five women and around one in every 15 men. They usually […]

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Chemical nature of hormones
Chemical nature of hormonesMay 4, 2018zaheer

Characteristics of Hormones Chemical Nature of Hormones Chemically, hormones may be classified as either proteins or steroids. All of the hormones in the human body, except the sex hormones and those from the adrenal cortex, are proteins or protein derivatives. Mechanism of Hormone Action Hormones are carried by the blood throughout the entire body, yet […]

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Liver Functions
Liver FunctionsMay 4, 2018zaheer

Functional unit of liver consists of lobules. Each hepatic lobule has cells radiating centrifugally from a central vein. The periphery of the lobule shows branches of hepatic artery, portal vein and bile duct. These three structures form the portal triad. There are large sinusoids present between the cells, which contain blood from portal vein and […]

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Deglutition
DeglutitionMay 4, 2018zaheer

It refers to the act of swallowing. It consists of oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal stages. The first stage is voluntary, second and third stages are involuntary. Swallowing, or deglutition, is divided into three phases: The buccal phase occurs voluntarily in the mouth when the tongue forces the bolus of food toward the pharynx. The pharyngeal […]

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Movements of stomach
Movements of stomachMay 4, 2018zaheer

Receptive relaxation The stomach shows receptive relaxation, accommodating large volume of food. The receptors for this are present in the wall of pharynx and esophagus. The function of fundus and body of the stomach is to store the food (storage function). The afferent and efferent impulses for receptive relaxation are carried by the vagus (vagovagal […]

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Phases of gastric secretion
Phases of gastric secretionMay 4, 2018zaheer

There are three phases namely: Cephalic Gastric Intestinal. Cephalic phase Conditioned reflexes like sight, smell, thought of food causes secretion of the gastric juice. Presence of food in the mouth also causes secretion in the stomach. The cephalic phase occurs by the activity of the vagus. Sham feeding experiments in animals like dogs, gives a […]

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Phasic blood flow
Phasic blood flowMay 4, 2018zaheer

Comparison of phasic blood flow velocity characteristics of arterial and venous coronary artery bypass conduits. BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass conduits derived from internal mammary arteries show relative resistance to atherosclerosis and significantly improved long-term patency compared with saphenous vein grafts. Atherothrombotic occlusion of venous conduits has previously been correlated with lower flow rates measured intraoperatively. […]

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Cerebral Circulation
Cerebral CirculationMay 4, 2018zaheer

What is cerebral circulation? Cerebral circulation is the blood flow in your brain. It’s important for healthy brain function. Circulating blood supplies your brain with the oxygen and nutrients it needs to function properly. Blood delivers oxygen and glucose to your brain. Although your brain is a small part of your body’s total weight, it […]

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Objectives of ECG
Objectives of ECGMay 4, 2018zaheer

Electrocardiogram (ECG) deals with the study of electrical activity of the heart. The instrument used to record the activity is called electrocardiograph. It was developed by a Dutch physiologist Einthoven in the year 1903. The recording was known as electrokardiogram (EKG). Both ECG and EKG are valid terms that can be used for the recording. […]

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ECG waves
ECG wavesMay 4, 2018zaheer

What is an ECG? ECG is short for electrocardiogram. It is used to record the electrical activity of the heart from different angles to identify and locate pathology. Electrodes are placed on different parts of a patient’s limbs and chest to record the electrical activity. Parts of the ECG explained P-waves P-waves represent atrial depolarisation. In […]

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Myelin Sheath
Myelin SheathMay 4, 2018zaheer

Myelin sheaths are sleeves of fatty tissue that protect your nerve cells. These cells are part of your central nervous system, which carries messages back and forth between your brain and the rest of your body. If you have multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease that causes your immune system to attack your central nervous system, […]

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Floor or Rhomboid Fossa
Floor or Rhomboid FossaMay 4, 2018zaheer

Floor of fourth ventricle is formed by dorsal surfaces of pons and upper-half of medulla oblongata. It is called rhomboid fossa because it is rhomboid in outline. The area is outlined superolaterally by superior cerebellar peduncles and inferolaterally by inferior cerebellar peduncles. At the inferior angle, on either side of midline, floor is limited by […]

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Relations of Brainstem
Relations of BrainstemMay 4, 2018zaheer

Brainstem is the tubular stalk-like part of the brain made up of midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata from above downward. It is so called because it is like stem of a tree. Main mass of the brain, cerebrum with cerebellum rests on the brainstem and through it, is connected to spinal cord below. Long axis […]

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Organization of Internal Structure at Different Level of Brainstem
Organization of Internal Structure at Different Level of BrainstemMay 4, 2018zaheer

Central cavity of brainstem show different characteristics and names at different level. At lower end of medulla it is a narrow canal continuous below with central canal of spinal cord. At the level of pons and upper half of medulla oblongata, it becomes wide to form the cavity of 4th ventricle of brain. At the […]

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Medulla oblongata at its lower end (at the plane of motor decussation)
Medulla oblongata at its lower end (at the plane of motor decussation)May 4, 2018zaheer

Structural characteristics At this level structure of medulla oblongata is almost similar to the structure of spinal cord, with centrally positioned gray matter and peripheral white matter. Ventral horn of gray matter gets separated from main mass due to decussation of pyramidal tract fibers which pass backwards and laterally to approach lateral white column before […]

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Medulla oblongata at its middle
Medulla oblongata at its middleMay 4, 2018zaheer

Structural characteristics There is no more existance of gray matter area which is homologous to anterior horn. Gray matter of posterior horn presenting nucleus gracilis, nucleus cuneatus and spinal nucleus of trigmenial nerve gets detached from central gray matter. This detachment is because of the arched fibers arising from nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus which […]

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Medulla oblongata at the level of olive
Medulla oblongata at the level of oliveMay 4, 2018zaheer

he medulla oblongata (medulla) is one of the three regions that make up the brainstem. It is the most inferior of the three and is continuous above with the pons and below with the spinal cord. The medulla houses essential ascending and descending nerve tracts as well as brainstem nuclei. In this article, we shall look […]

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Tegmental-part-at-lower-half-of-pons
Tegmental part at lower half of ponsMay 4, 2018zaheer

Gray matter: Some cranial nerve nuclei and nuclei of pontine part reticular formation. l Abducent nerve nucleus: It is the nucleus of somatic efferent group. Fibers of abducent (VIth cranial) nerve arising from this nucleus supply lateral rectus muscle of eyeball which is developed from preoccipital myotome of paraaxial mesoderm. This nucleus is situated deep […]

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Problems with the learning
Problems with the learning processMay 3, 2018zaheer

In some infants, perceptual processing that depends upon innate recognition may be damaged and perceptual attributes that lead to salience may not be perceived. Perception that depends upon temporal processing may be slowed and crossmodality may be impaired. Meaning may be more easily accessed visually (i.e. what is seen may make more sense than what […]

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Learning Development
Cognitive and Learning DevelopmentMay 3, 2018zaheer

Children learn about their world by listening, observing, copying and experimenting. The world of infants is very small and their repertoire of skills limited. They learn about their world through observation, by reaching and grasping objects and by copying sounds and actions. By contrast, toddlers are mobile and their worlds are large. Their motor skills […]

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B Cells
B CellsMay 3, 2018zaheer

B-Cell Development B cells constitute approximately 10% of peripheral blood leukocytes. They develop in the bone marrow from hematopoietic stem cells but achieve maturity in peripheral lymphoid organs. Early progenitors committed to the B-cell lineage (pro–B cells) begin recombination at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain loci. Successful recombination leads to expression of μ–heavy chain, distinguishing them from […]

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Sound Perception
Sound PerceptionMay 3, 2018zaheer

The ear is fully developed at birth and sound perception is possible in utero. Speech perception and recognition of voices of different speakers are present shortly after birth. The capacity for smell and touch as well as the other senses are similarly developed at birth and play an important part in the perceptual learning about […]

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Atopic dermatitis
Atopic DermatitisMay 3, 2018zaheer

Although atopic (infantile or flexural) dermatitis may begin at any age, it usually commences from about the sixth week onwards. It is characterized by a chronic, relapsing course. In the infantile phase lesions are present mainly on the head, face, neck, napkin area, and extensor aspects of the limbs. As the patient grows older and […]

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Psoriasis
PsoriasisMay 3, 2018zaheer

Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing and remitting disease of the skin that may affect any site. It is one of the commonest of all skin diseases, with a reported incidence of 1–2% in Caucasians. It is rare among blacks, Japanese, and native North and South american populations. Males and females are affected equally. Although psoriasis […]

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BreastMay 3, 2018zaheer

Optimal gross examination of mammary tissue includes inspection and palpation and may be aided by x-ray examination. It is advantageous to examine tissue in the fresh state, even if frozen section is not requested, because abnormalities are more evident and tissue can be preserved for special studies, as necessary. However, some types of carcinoma, particularly […]

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Eosinophils
EosinophilsMay 3, 2018zaheer

Eosinophils are derived from colony-forming unit–eosinophil (CFU-Eo), a progenitor that differentiates into an eosinophilic myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, and finally a mature eosinophil. Eosinophils constitute 2% to 5% of circulating leukocytes in normal individuals and are readily recognized from their prominent cytoplasmic granules, which contain toxic molecules and enzymes that are particularly active against helminths and […]

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