Bacteriostatic Water

Bacteriostatic (Biostatic) Water

What is Bacteriostatic Water?

Bacteriostatic water, a long name for a very simple substance that has many important applications– bacteriostatic water in its basic form is simply bacteria free water that has been treated with benzyl alcohol to keep it bacteria free.

That simple explanation does not tell the entire story. The water has to first be carefully sterilized to make sure all bacteria have been killed. The water is then filtered to remove all impurities, leaving it as clean as possible. Then 9 milligrams of benzyl alcohol are added to each 1 milliliter of water. This .9% solution inhibits the growth of any new bacteria making sure the water stays bacterial neutral.

The benzyl alcohol does not kill bacteria. It prevents bacteria from growing, or in other words, inhibits bacterial growth. That is why it is crucial the water be sterilized and filtered prior to adding the benzyl alcohol.

Why is this so important? Bacteriostatic water is used to make sure injectable medications stay 100% sterile. Picture a patient in a hospital bed. You can see the IV Bag hanging to their side with the tube running down to their wrist. You will notice somewhere along that tube is a small injection port that is used for giving them medications instead of poking the patient each time. Bacteriostatic water makes sure that port and the syringe stay bacteria free, so the patient does not get infections.

How Bacteriostatic (Biostatic) Water is Used:

Bacteriostatic water is also used in direct injections. The medications are dissolved, or diluted, with bacteriostatic water. The injections may them be given into the muscle (intramuscular), directly into a vein (intravenous) or under the skin (subcutaneous).

Sterile water is bacteria free, but once an injection needle enters the water, the entire container is contaminated. Any traces of bacteria can begin to grow. Bacteriostatic water does not allow the bacteria to grow, so the container of water can continue to be used. The bacteriostatic water is commonly discarded in 28 days after its first use to make sure the benzyl alcohol stays at maximum effectiveness.

There are rare occurrences of side effects with the use of bacteriostatic water. These can include getting a fever, venous thrombosis (blood clots in the veins), phlebitis (inflammation of the veins), or tissue death at the site of the injection. It is not recommended for use on newborn children.

Bacteriostatic water is most commonly used in medical offices and hospitals but can be used in homes when self-administered injections are necessary. It is also widely used in the veterinary industry for the same reasons. It is not recommended to use bacteriostatic water on infant pets, due to potential problems with benzyl alcohol toxicity.

In the sports world, bacteriostatic water is commonly used to dilute injectible supplements. HGH is usually diluted with either sterile water or bacteriostatic water, but bacteriostatic water is considered the safer alternative.

Bacteriostatic water provides a safe method to reduce or eliminate, bacteria in medications which must be injected. Its use in hospitals, clinics and for home injections is essential for safety.

Recognition of Occupational Injury & Illness

Recognition of Occupational Injury & Illness

An employer takes the employee as is and is responsible for medical conditions caused or made worse by employment. An injury or disease must occur while carrying out the interest of the employer. The actual injury or disease does not have to occur on the employer’s premises to be covered by workers’ compensation.

The word “injury” under the Workers’ Compensation Act means more than it does in every day speech. For workers’ compensation purposes, the following situations are considered injuries:

  1. A specific incident at work causing an injury, i.e.: “Fall at work” is the most common.
  2. A series of repetitive actions resulting in a disability, i.e.: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.
  3. A pre-existing condition that has been aggravated by work. i.e.: Asthma.
  4. An earlier work related disability which recurs causing a later disability, i.e.: Back injury.

Recognition of Occupational Injury & Illness

Some diseases related to certain occupations are recognized specifically as occupational diseases.

  1. Tuberculosis and hepatitis for nurses, blood processors, and related professionals who are exposed to these diseases.
  2. Disease of the heart and lungs for firemen who have four or more years of service.
  3. Pneumoconiosis and silicosis for any occupation that involves direct contact with or exposure to coal dust.
  4. Specific types of chemical poisoning (i.e.: lead, arsenic, mercury) for occupations that involve direct contact or exposure, or to the preparation or compounds.


Other diseases not specifically mentioned can be compensable if they meet certain criteria for determining whether a disease is occupationally related. The determination if a disease is compensable depends on the following:

  1. The employee is exposed to the disease by reason of his/her employment.
  2. The disease is causally related to the employee’s industry or occupation.
  3. The occurrence of the disease is substantially greater in that industry or occupation than it is in the general population.

Teaching Occupational Medicine

Teaching Occupational Medicine

Despite its relevance to medical practice, occupational medicine has been poorly represented in undergraduate training. This article describes a model for the teaching of occupational medicine to student doctors.


The model comprises two didactic lectures, a student‐selected component (SSC) of five interactive two‐hour sessions and one occupational medicine objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) station in the final MB ChB clinical exam. Interested final‐year students are invited to join the SSC. In session 1, students discuss the scope of occupational medicine practice, which includes a job title–occupational illness quiz, the use of environmental measurements and audiovisual recordings of selected workplaces.

Teaching Occupational Medicine

Sessions 2–4 involve visits to workplaces such as a laundry, a foundry and a bakery, during which students are asked to record relevant hazards to health, their controls, health effects and how occupational causality might be determined. The final session allows students to present their findings and gain feedback from the occupational physicians and their peers.